LASIK Eye Surgery in Birmingham and Huntsville, AL

LASIK Eye Surgery consultation

Birmingham and Huntsville LASIK Surgery Centers

Have you dreamed of a life where you’re less dependent on glasses and contact lenses? With LASIK, this could be your reality. Using the latest in vision correction technology, the experienced LASIK eye surgeons at Alabama Vision Center in and around the Birmingham, Alabama area are here to help you achieve crisp, clear vision.

Schedule a consultation today to see if you qualify for LASIK eye surgery or alternative refractive procedures.

What is LASIK?

LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) is an advanced outpatient procedure that uses lasers to improve vision by reshaping the cornea. More than 90% of people who undergo LASIK eye surgery achieve 20/20 vision or better. Study shows up to 98% of patients are satisfied with their LASIK results.¹

A LASIK surgeon of Alabama Vision Center has performed many laser eye surgery procedures and is dedicated to using the safest, most effective, and most advanced technology available to help deliver the best vision.

LASIK consultation

All-Laser LASIK Technology

We know that no two eyes are alike—so why should your treatment be any different? At Alabama Vision Center, we offer a personalized approach to your vision correction. Our all-laser procedure incorporates advanced wavefront technology to create a 3D map of your cornea. This gives us measurements as much as 25 times more precise, to deliver a one-of-a-kind LASIK procedure tailored to your eyes.² Ask us about customized laser vision correction just for you. 

What Does LASIK Treat?

The LASIK procedure can help reduce your dependence on glasses or contact lenses by correcting:

  • Nearsightedness (Myopia)

  • Farsightedness (Hyperopia)

  • Astigmatism 

Am I a Candidate for LASIK?

To determine whether you are a good candidate for LASIK, your Alabama Vision Center eye doctor will conduct a thorough examination with specialized diagnostic testing and scans. The ideal LASIK candidate:

  • Is at least 18 years of age

  • Has stable vision (no eye prescription change in the past year)

  • Has a vision correction need that is treatable with LASIK (nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism)

  • Has healthy corneas and good overall eye health

Patients typically not eligible for LASIK include those with the following conditions:

  • Dry eye disease

  • Some Autoimmune disorders such as lupus or Sjogren’s syndrome (verify with your eye doctor)

  • Corneal ulcers or corneal abrasion

  • Glaucoma

  • Corneal implant

  • Keratoconus

Wondering if LASIK might be a good option for you? Schedule a consultation with our expert Alabama Vision Center eye doctors to see if you could experience the joy of sight in a whole new way. If you’re not a candidate for LASIK, click here to learn more about the EVO lens.

Alternative Refractive Surgery Options at Alabama Vision Center

If you’re not a candidate for LASIK, click to learn more about the number of alternative refractive surgery options that may be right for you.

EVO Lens

EVO Visian ICL is an Implantable Collamer™ Lens that corrects common vision problems such as nearsightedness (myopia) and astigmatism. Collamer is a biocompatible material that works in harmony with the eye. The lens, which is slightly smaller than a typical contact lens, is implanted in the eye during a 20 to 30 minute procedure. Unlike laser vision correction surgeries that permanently change the shape of your cornea, the EVO Visian ICL procedure is additive, meaning that no corneal tissue is removed. Worldwide, more than 1 million EVO Visian ICL lenses have been implanted. Learn more about the EVO Vision ICL procedure here.


ReLEx® SMILE from ZEISS is the first and only small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) laser vision correction solution currently available. SMILE is a minimally-invasive procedure that can treat low to high amounts of myopia (-1 to -10). The procedure removes a small piece of the cornea to reshape the eye in minutes, with the laser only taking 30 seconds of the time. This next generation technology only requires one laser, which makes it very precise and comfortable.

SMILE and LASIK are roughly the same cost, have similar healing times, have similar side effects, and correct refractive errors within about the same range, typically to 20/25 or better. While LASIK works for many people, it is not a perfect solution for some. As a result, more forms of laser vision correction have been developed, like the SMILE procedure. If you are looking for laser eye surgery to correct your refractive error, it is important to know the differences between these options so you can discuss them with your ophthalmologist.

Refractive Lens Exchange (RLE)

Refractive Lens Exchange allows patients to restore their near, intermediate, and far vision with an implantable, multi-focal lens that replaces the eye’s crystalline lens. This procedure is especially suited for patients over 45 who haven’t yet developed cataracts, but are far-sighted and dependent on bi-focals or tri-focals. Since the eye’s natural lens is replaced, Refractive Lens Exchange patients will never develop cataracts.

The Refractive Lens Exchange procedure takes about 15 minutes and is performed one eye at a time on separate visits. Surgery in the second eye can usually be performed as soon as one to two weeks later. The eye’s natural lens is removed using gentle ultrasound energy, and is replaced with an artificial lens called an Intraocular Lens Implant (IOL). Most patients see improvement in their vision immediately after the procedure, and experience continued improvement for the next three to six months. Following the procedure, discomfort is typically mild with no need for pain medication.

Advanced Surface Ablation (ASA)

Advanced Surface Ablation (ASA) is a safer option for patients who have thin corneas or high prescriptions, making it a great procedure for those who are not candidates for LASIK. ASA can be a good choice for those who play contact sports, those with careers or career aspirations in aviation, or military personnel. The ASA procedure is similar to LASIK, but only takes one step. The doctor uses the state-of-the-art ALLEGRETTO WAVE® Eye-Q to reshape the cornea. ASA patients may experience slightly more discomfort than LASIK patients and the results are not as immediate. You may have blurred vision for about five days following the procedure, but optimal vision is usually reached within one to three months.

Visian Toric ICL

The Visian ICL™ (Implantable Collamer® Lens) also referred to as an implantable contact lens is an option for patients who have moderate to severe nearsightedness with or without astigmatism that may not be candidates for laser vision correction such as: LASIK, ASA or SMILE. The ICL is implanted behind the iris and in front of the natural lens, is not visible and is made of Collamer®, a biocompatible material that is designed to function in harmony with the natural eye. This alternative delivers sharp, clear vision with the option of surgical reversibility.

Book Your LASIK consultation

Book Your LASIK Eye Surgery Consultation

Looking for LASIK eye surgery providers in Huntsville and Birmingham, Alabama? Schedule a consultation with the skilled eye doctors of Alabama Vision Center. We’ll assess your eye health and discuss the best treatment options for your specific needs.

Frequently Asked Questions about LASIK

Is LASIK Painful?

No. The anesthetic eye drops applied before the surgery begins ensures that there is no pain during the procedure. You might feel a sensation of pressure or experience dimming of your vision at various points in the procedure.

How Much Does LASIK Cost?

The cost of LASIK depends on several factors such as whether one or both eyes are being treated, what technology is used, etc. Laser vision correction may be more affordable than you think. When you consider the cost of glasses, contacts, and cleaning solutions, LASIK is a long-term investment that can actually save you money while improving your quality of life. Our goal is to make LASIK affordable for everyone, so we offer flexible financing options as well.  

Will My Insurance Cover LASIK?

Most medical and vision insurance plans do not cover LASIK, as it is an elective procedure. However, flex spending accounts (FSAs) may be utilized to pay for the surgery using pre-tax dollars.

Can I Drive After LASIK?

Arrange for transportation to and from your surgery and your first follow-up visit. You will be asked to keep your eyes closed for the ride home after your procedure. We recommend having a driver for the one-day follow-up visit in case you still feel you have watery or hazy vision the next day.

Are Patients Satisfied With the Results?

Yes. LASIK has a satisfaction rate of up to 98%.¹

Our Alabama Vision Center vision centers in Birmingham & Huntsville, AL

Alabama Vision Center has three convenient locations in Alabama. Our skilled Huntsville and Birmingham eye doctors look forward to providing excellent eye care in the communities they continue to serve. Schedule your comprehensive eye exam, LASIK consultation, or shop for your new favorite frames! Learn more.


  • Doctor Ajay is a Great doctor he knows what's best for me I am glad I found him for my eye injections .And the employees are very professionals. Keep up the good work. I suggest everyone to go there for their eye treatments.

    Raymond G.
  • I had a very good experience

    Rafael E. R.
  • I had a very good experience

    Rafael E. R.
  • I had a very good experience

    Rafael E. R.
  • So if you are going to VRA, there is probably something weird going on with your eyes. Dr. Glazer is the gentlest guy. He tells you what is going on and how he’s going to handle it. He turns scary into we can handle this. I would definitely... Read More

    Patti H.
  • It all went very smooth and very close to my appointment time. I would definitely come here again...

    Bill Y.
  • Appointment was prompt and everything went smoothly.

    Barbara B.
  • Very responsive, friendly, and professional. Took time to answer questions and provide recommendations.

    Ron G.
  • Dr Meeks is very kind and years ago he found a tumor on my pituitary gland that was pressing on my optic nerve that was interfering with my vision, referred me to a neurosurgeon and I had it removed. He's a great doctor 🙏❤️

    Brenda S.
  • I felt like I was in the best of hands. So happy I found this place!!! Dr. DeHorn is the right Dr I have been looking for. Very professional and personable.

    Rena S.
  • The Dr was very thorough n patient. I give him a 10 rating.

    Anna P.
  • Great Service

    Ted M.
  • Everyone there were very nice and professional. Dr. Bodnarchuk explained the cataract procedure and surgical choices I had very well.

    Patricia P.
  • Dr. Bodnarchuk and the staff were most friendly and courteous

    Michael H.
  • Dr Velazquez is great. He is very knowledgeable and professional. His staff does a fantastic job. It was a low stress experience. I would highly recommend Alabama Vision Center.

    Derek W.
  • Very professional office; everyone is nice, and they take the time to explain procedures and diagnosis's in layman's terms

    Tamara S.
  • Great experience,very knowledgeable, very clean and comfortable environment, everyone was exceptional. Highly recommended!

    Joyce M.
  • Very thorough exam. Everyone was courteous and caring. When it is time for my cataract surgery, I will definitely come back to Dr. Watson and her staff!

  • I was very impressed with the entire Staff at VRA! From the front office, the various Technicians who contributed to my care, as well as Dr. Chapman himself. Everyone did a great job, and I feel like that was the most thorough exam I've e... Read More

    Francis J. H.
  • Dr. Jeffrey Zheutlin was simply the best! I was referred to him by my optometrist for a closer look. Dr. Zheutlin was very personable; easy to talk to, and had a wealth of knowledge. He patiently answered all my questions, and was not in... Read More

  • It was pleasant, quick, and successful! I’ll be back on the 25th for the other eye!

    Lisa C.
  • Dr. Duddleston and all three staff working with me on my last visit were absolutely great.

    Jeff W.
  • So very organized giving great medical care to their patients

    Jim J.
  • This is a very professional office with a great/friendly staff and physician. I was in need of an Ophthalmologist and Dr. Watson was able to get me into see her in less than a week. She provided clear concise information and an outline li... Read More

    Mark M.
  • Dr DeHorn is very professional and compassionate. I enjoy visiting this practice and always feel listened to and well taken care of.

    Michael W.
  • Great staff, friendly and professional.

    Barbara S.
  • Dr. DeHorn always takes time to answer all of my questions. She also gives me suggestions on managing my macular degeneration. I always feel good that everything possible is being done to keep my macular degeneration from progressing.

    Ann L.
  • Dr. McCluskey's and her staff were great. Very organized, professional and pleasant

    Michael B.
  • I have been with Dr. GILLESPIE for over 20 years. He retired and I saw a Dr Bodnarcaduk. I was impressed with his knowledge of my case history and loved his down-to-earth attitude. He was polite and very helpful in making the best decisi... Read More

    Karen “. -. W.
  • Very nice and helpful

    Cindy B.
  • Always on time appointments, friendly Drs and staff, very satisfied

    Jerry G.
  • Great place staff is top rate l don’t use anyone else.

    Kathy E.
  • Very courteous knowledgeable and professional.

    Bob S.
  • Dr. B was very thorough and considerate of my needs and was good to explain what might help my conditions. I had never met him before but he made me comfortable about getting shots in both my eyes and what else we need to do to alleviate so... Read More

    Dale A.
  • Very knowledgeable, professional and kind. They have a very orderly, structured system, as well.

    Kim F.
  • Thanks to Dr. Meeks and staff for a very pleasant experience. Had cataract surgery with no complications at all. Very professional service. Thanks again.

    Randy S.
  • The staff are very friendly, knowledgeable and helpful. I really like Dr. Zheutlin. He explains what is happening and makes me feel like I'm in the best possible hands for my eye problems. The office is very nice and clean. I would highly r... Read More

    Jennifer G.
  • Amazing Doctors& Professional staff.5 ⭐️ ⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️

    Amanda S.
  • It was a very nice experience. Everyone was really nice and made you feel comfortable very professional but made you feel right at home with them.

    Nita K.
  • Registration was way too long.

    Michael M.
  • Dr. Young was amazing and so were the technicians, who helped me pick out my frames. Everyone went the extra mile to make the visit friendly and pleasant. Highly recommended!

    Angela S.
  • I felt very confident and pleased with the doctor, the staff and the way everything was explained to me. It was a very good experience.

    Joyce S.
  • All the doctors have gone above and beyond to resolve any issues with my vision!! And Megan (sp?) is a Rock Star!! I’m in good hands here.

    Joanna S.
  • Everyone I dealt with was helpful. Dr. Z is absolutely great. My Lazer treatment was new and scary, but Dr. Z made it a good experience for an 87 year old former teacher. VRA is my go to for eye care!

    Deloris C.
  • Very nice and pleasant doctor! Very easy to talk to. He talked to me and told me everything he was gong to do

    Joanna B.
  • Dr DeHorn was great. She explain everything in detail in language we could understand Very helpful and kind. A great doctor.

    Roger V.
  • Everyone was friendly and helpful. I felt a little fearful going in, but was made to feel very comfortable by everyone. Thank you

    Jo A. T.
  • Great doctor and staff! Would definitely recommend!!!!

    Shurrun C.
  • The knowledge of the Drs and the staff are excellent. Renowned facility!!!

    Carol W.
  • Dr. DeHorn is a wonderful Retina Specialist and I have been seeing her for quite a few years. She really cares about her patients and I feel like I am getting excellent care.

    Pam N.
  • Been going five years or more, always the best.

    Sharon H.
  • I am so pleased with the Ophthalmology Group of Paducah. Dr. Mark Gillespie found a cataract that my previous provider had missed and saved my sight. I now have great vision. He recently retired, but I was very pleased with my recent vis... Read More

    Marla A.
  • They were great. Very confident in what do and very nice.

    Roger V.
  • First time. I found all there professional, friendly, respectful, and very clear in explaining my condition. And in the Humana Family.

    Jay D. S. E.
  • My appointment was a checkup which went very smoothly, and Dr Chapman explained to me that I did not have to worry at this point.

    Randall V.
  • I appreciate that the whole process moved along and even though it does take a while there was not a lot of unnecessary waiting. Doctor DeHorn, herself, is outstanding and has great knowledge. She is thorough and clear in her explanation. T... Read More

    Kat “. A.
  • I first met Hannah and she made me feel so comfortable. She was very polite and she answered all of my questions. Dr. Price...what can I say. She has more concern about my eyes than I do.

    Marianne W.
  • All the staff makes the visit great. From the people at the front desk to the lady who started my treatment to the doctor who tested me. She made the bright lights seem ok because of her personality and professionalism. I left with a large ... Read More

    Richard V.
  • I had developed shingles on my face rapidly during the weekend, which sent me to the ER on a Saturday evening. By Monday morning, I had to seek an ophthalmologist for treatment as I had severe swelling of my right eye. I contacted the Opht... Read More

    L B.
  • All good, nice people who do their job well

    Tam K.
  • Dr. Watson identified a problem in my retina and saved my eyesight when my other Dr did not recognize that anything was wrong. She is very good at what she does and I highly recommend going to see her!

    Caroline B.
  • Easy experience, Dr. Meeks and staff was thorough, pleasant, informative and professional.

    Carla R.
  • My husband and I have both been patients of Jeff Taylor, M.D. since we moved here nearly three years ago. He is one of our favorite people in the medical field. He has a wonderful personality, is interested in our wellbeing, and we trust ... Read More

    Kathleen M.
  • Dr. Jeff Taylor was recommended to me by my ophthalmologist in Nashville. I find Dr. Taylor very professional and knowledgeable. I feel fortunate to have found him and not have to travel back to Nashville.

    Julia H.
  • Very courteous and professional

    Bluegrass D. G.
  • The staff was wonderful! Explained all the testing being done prior to seeing surgeon. Thorough, professional, friendly. Surgeon explained levels of cataract surgery that could be done with a strong focus on the best option.

    Madelyn P.
  • Very nice people and take such good care of you from the office staff to the girls who do the eye checking to Dr. Meeks. Thankful for them all.

    Peggy K.
  • I’ve had a problem with my right eye for months. I was treated in Arizona but wanted Doctor Price to see my. As soon as I was back I saw her and she gave me the confidence I needed. She’s truly a greatdoctor

    Mary A. G.
  • Great experience after cataract removed from one eye. Great staff.

    Laura &. K. B.
  • Very friendly and professional staff.

    Thomas P.
  • I have no complaints. I’ve been with Dr. Reed for many years and every visit has been very benevicial I highly recommend Shoreline Vision

    Marilyn T.
  • Very efficient and professional business. Staff were attentive, polite and professional. All procedures and results were explained clearly in understandable language. I appreciated the optometry department being in the same facility. The... Read More

    Harvey H.
  • A great place to go for your eye examination!!!!.

    Cathern B.
  • Friendly knowledgeable takes time to answer questions

    Joe K.
  • I found your Place a grate place to be in, Friendly welcoming, and a grate Dr. who gave me grate treatment for my eye, I also had a pleasant moment durimg the examination. Thank you for being there.

    Ruth M. W.
  • Dr. Wilson is always personable and likes to listen to the patient. She makes good recommendations on what needs to be changed.

    Michelle P.
  • All members of their staff are professional, competent, prompt and courteous. What more can you ask for? I am always very pleased with the results from the moment I walk in until I get my new glasses.

    Beverly S.
  • Alabama Vision Center just performed cataract surgery on both my wife’s eyes… one week apart. Staff very helpful and friendly. Dealt w several of their doctors… all excellent. Highly recommend.

    Allen F.
  • Dr Westhouse was thorough, professional and eased my concerns about my eye condition that required an eye injection. The way he does eye injections actually made me cry because I didn’t know there was a more comfortable way of receiving the... Read More

    Brad B.
  • Have been seeing Dr. Byrd for years & he has always been attentive and explained the status of health of eyes. He makes one feel confident in his care. We are glad his office is in Wyandotte too!

    Ron W.
  • Excellent Dr. and staff. They are superb and I wouldn't go anywhere else!

    Mike A. P. H.
  • Everyone who works here are very special people ! They know eyes!!!

    Warren C.
  • Efficient, minimal waiting, friendly. Dr. Bodnarchuk is thorough and prophylactic in his approach to eye care.

    Chrystel J.
  • very professional and knowledgeable...would definitely recommend

    Cindy H.
  • Dr. Bernardchuck explained in more detail about my condition and the surgery needed to correct it. It was the first time I've seen him and I will give him a good recommendation.

    Sybil R.
  • Good doctor. Took time with me and answered all my questions. Highly recommend Dr. Riker

    Ken B.
  • Very clean office and, very friendly staff. Keep up the good work!

    Morris T.
  • Was leary of getting my cataracts done. Friendly staff made me feel at ease. Dr. Barron ws awesome, great job and I didn't even have to do the eye drops. Looking forward to getting my other eye done.

    Debra P.
  • Very professional and answer's questions.

    Sharon L.
  • Professional, friendly and knowledgeable. Pretty much on time for appointment.

    Priscilla D.
  • Good team work. Thorough exam. Pleasant. Professional. Thank You.

    Nancy B.
  • Very caring and thorough

    Wayne K.
  • GREAT PLACE! Everything is done promptly and professionally. Left understanding fully my conditions and what lies ahead. On a scale of 1 to 10, I give them an 11

    George A.
  • Dr. Byrd Answered all my questions and addressed all my fears. I Ieft there feeling relieved

    Denise M.
  • Dr. Price and the whole team at Byrd&Wyandotte Eye Clinic treated me with the kind of care and professionalism that I was hoping for.

    Yvonne R.
  • Competent and professional all the way.

    Walter W.
  • The doctor was kind, patient, and caring. I felt very comfortable and safe to begin this surgery.

    Maria D. K.
  • Absolutely the best eye care I've received in life thus far. Dr. Holly Young, was a breath of fresh air in this world. She was more thorough than anyone exam in 30 years of wearing glasses. Humbled I am, and YES this is the place to go.... Read More

    Fredrick H. (. E. H.
  • Dr. Taylor is great, he takes good care of his patients!

    Randy S.
  • Jessica did a very good at explaining what she was doing and told me about my eyes and what was wrong with them

    Allen H.
  • Outstanding care. The entire staff is friendly and extremely knowledgeable.

    Nelson J.
  • All around great experience. Caring professionals caring for my vision and providing solutions to restore better sight. Happy that chose Shoreline and Dr Rawlinson.

    Mark W.
  • Great Dr. Very personable. Explained everything so I understood exactly what he was going to do. I would recommend him

    Sherri S.
  • An amazing doctor. I would highly recommend Dr. Capone!

    Kathy R.
  • All ways courteous, friendly and knowledgeable

    Estelle C.
  • Dr. George A. Williams, M.D. is a truly wonderful guy who happens to be one of the top retina specialists in the United States.

    Lewis S.
  • Dr Drenser is wonderful.

    Christine S.
  • I have been under Dr Garretson’s care for a few years. He is a skilled doctor and has a well trained staff caring for you. The practice is run like clockwork, very efficiently run office.

    Sandy S.
  • I liked this Dr. She was pleasant and professional and spoke in terms that I could understand. Highly recommended!

    Tacobell 2.
  • Dr. Mahmoud and staff provided the best care. He carefully explained the procedure and what I could expect afterwards. Associated Retinal Consultants - Highly Recommended!

    Dennis E.
  • Dr. Garretson is great, and the whole practice runs like a well-oiled machine. Rarely any wait time.

    Laurel N.
  • I had a serious eye problem and when I called for an appointment I didn’t have to wait weeks they got me in that same week. Very thankful for their professionalism.

    Jerry W.
  • informative, pleasant,fast service

    Sonny B.
  • Dr. Wiener is wonderful - I needed a shot in my eye - he has a great way of talking to you and making you feel comfortable. Thank you Dr. Weiner

    Tammy Q.
  • Dr. Farley did a great job explaining what was happening with my eye and what to expect.

    J K.
  • Very professional and on time.

    Janice R.
  • Very thorough and extremely concerned with your eye health. Top notch technology and knowledgeable staff. Fun and comfortable environment.

    Audrey F.
  • As in the past, I was extremely pleased with Dr. Farley. He’s very thorough and does an excellent job answering my questions.

    Jim C.
  • ARC is AWESOME!! Every aspect that you can imagine is top-rate. I am so happy that I was pointed in their direction when I was in need.

    Harry A.
  • Dr. Wilson and the staff at shoreline vision were great.

    Adam H.
  • I went in thinking I had an issue with my left eye and come to find out, I had issues with my right eye that they immediately resolved for me that day

    Kenneth W.
  • VERY EFFICIENT! My appointment was on time, with no wait! Dr. Webster carefully looked at the reports the technician had in her testing. She explained the results in a very thorough manner! She is personable and very professional!

    Marcia B.
  • I like coming here. It is a nice office and the waiting time is never long. Everyone is very friendly.

    Cheri G.
  • Dr. Price takes such great care to spend time and answer all questions. She truly loves what she does.

    Catherine C.
  • Dr Williams is patient and kind. I ended up seeing Dr Williams in lieu of my normal retina doctor due to a scheduling conflict. He was able to answer all my questions and I was reassured with his professional opinion. Health problems can be... Read More

    Ma A.
  • A professional and caring Dr. I would recommend him to anyone needing eye care.

    Ted H.
  • Dr. Meeks has always provided me with excellent eye examinations and information.

    Carol W.
  • Great staff

    Cella H.
  • Dr. Ajey S Alurkar is very professional, knowledgeable and friendly. He explained what was going on with my eyes in a way I could understand.

    Marilyn S.
  • Patient friendly and is very knowledgeable with regards to my eye issues. Explains in very easy terms to understand. I'd recommend.

    Greg D.
  • I’ve been going to Dr. Meeks for years and can trust him to tell me what I need/don’t need and always feel like I’m in great hands. He detected a squamous cell carcinoma on my lower eyelid and had me in Nashville the same afternoon. Great... Read More

    Jeanie C.
  • Dr. Wilson was great! Her exam was very thorough, and she answered all questions clearly. Excellent bedside manner!

    Wendy D.
  • Friendly and professional service. Answered all my questions.

    Sandra F.